Outdoor Education R&E Center

Outdoor Education Theory

Reason for Freezin'
(Don Kesselheim)

James Neill
Last updated:
27 Jan 2008

Reason for Freezin' (Don Kesselheim)

Nature theory has often been combined with stress theory as the basis for outdoor education programs, particularly for example in Outward Bound programs -- that by living a hard, rugged life in the outdoors that people come to learn important lessons about themselves and others.

Don Kesselheim wrote a classic article in the early 1970's which argued for the tougher side of outdoor education as important.  Thus, this article followed and contributed to traditional Outward Bound philosophy.


Kesselheim, A. D. (1974). A rationale for outdoor activity as experiential education: The reason for freeziní. In K. Smathers (Ed.) The proceedings of the first North American Conference on Outdoor Pursuits in Higher Education (pp. 18-22). Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, February 10-13.