Outdoor Education Theories

Outdoor Education Theory

James Neill
Last updated:
30 Jan 2008


Brookes, A. R. (2003a). A critique of neo-Hahnian outdoor education theory. Part one: challenges to the concept of 'character building'. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 3(1), 49-62.

Brookes, A. R. (2003b). A critique of neo-Hahnian outdoor education theory. Part two: 'the fundamental attribution error' in contemporary outdoor education discourse. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 3(2), 119-132.

Brookes, A. (2003c). Adventure programming and the fundamental attribution error: A critique of neo-Hahnian outdoor education theory. In B. Humberstone, H. Brown, H., & K. Richards (Eds.) (2003). Whose journeys? The outdoors and adventure as social and cultural phenomena. Critical explorations of relations between individuals, 'others' and the environment (pp. 403-422). Cumbria, UK: Institute for Outdoor Learning.

Brookes, A. R. (2003d). Character building. Why it doesnít happen, why it canít be made to happen, and why the myth of character building is hurting the field of outdoor education. Keynote presentation. In S. Polley (Ed.), 13th National Outdoor Education Conference (pp. 19-24). Marion, South Australia, Australia: Outdoor Educators Association of South Australia.

Brookes, A. R. (2006). Situationist outdoor education in the country of lost children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.

Hattie, J. A., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure education and Outward Bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.

Itin, C. (n. d.). The impelling principle in Challenge by Choice. Rocky: Newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Region of the Association for Experiential Education, 6(3?).

Itin, C. (2002). The double diamond model of experiential education as a framework. In Richards, K., & Smith, B. (Eds.) Therapy Within Adventure. Augsburg, Germany: Ziel. (29 Euro + 3 P&H; Email: verlag@ziel.org)

Itin, C., & Bandoroff, S. (2001). Facilitation on the edge: Developing professional skills and competence to facilitate therapeutic change.  Workshop presented at the Association for Experiential Education. 29th Annual International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education, November, Charleston, WV.

McIntyre, N. (1999). Investigating adventure experiences: An experiential sampling approach. Scisco Conscientia, 1(1), 1-13.

McKenzie, M. D. (2000). How are adventure education program outcomes achieved?: A review of the literature. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 5(1), 19-28.

Medrick, F. W. (1977). Confronting passive behavior through outdoor experience: A TA [Transactional Analysis] approach to experiential learning. In Children, nature and the urban environment: Proceedings of a symposium fair (pp. 193-198). USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-30. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.

Neill, J. T. (in progress). Theoretical aspects of outdoor education. Chapter 2 of doctoral dissertation, Enhancing Personal Effectiveness: The Impacts of Outdoor Education Programs.  University of Western Sydney.

Priest, S. (1993). A new model for risk-taking in adventure programming. Journal of Experiential Education, 16(1), 50-53.

Rhoades, J. S. (1972). The problem of individual change in Outward Bound: An application of change and transfer theory.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts). Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, A4922.

Sibthorp, J. (2003). An empirical look at Walsh and Golins' adventure education process model: Relationships between antecedent factors, perceptions of characteristics of an adventure education experience, and changes in self-efficacy. Journal of Leisure Research, 35, 80-106.

Tucker, N. (2000). Research studentship: First year interim report. Research partnership: Brathay Hall Trust, Foundation for Outdoor Adventure, Nottingham University.

Walsh, V., & Golins, G. L. (1976). The exploration of the Outward Bound process.  Denver, CO: Colorado Outward Bound School.


Bacon, S. B. (1987).  The evolution of the Outward Bound process.  Greenwich, CT: Outward Bound USA.

Beard, C., & Wilson, J. P. (2002). The power of experiential learning: A handbook for trainers and educators. London: Kogan Page.

Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and education. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Dickson, T., Gray, T., & Hayllar, B. (Eds.) (2005). Outdoor and experiential learning: Views from the top. Otago, NZ: Otago University Press.

Ewert, A. (1989).  Outdoor adventure pursuits: Foundations, models, and theories.  Scottsdale, AZ: Publishing Horizons.

Gair, N. P. (1997). Outdoor education: Theory and practice. London: Cassell.  Book review (1999; Adolescence).

Luckner, J. & Nadler, R. (1997). Processing the experience: Strategies to enhance and generalize learning. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Priest, S., & Gass, M. (2005). Effective leadership in adventure programming (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Warren, K., Sakofs, M, & Hunt, J. S. (Eds.) (1995). The theory of experiential education (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.