Outdoor Education in Schools
Outdoor education became a notable part of schooling ever since schools began to locate themselves primarily within walls and underneath rooves. Organised school trips into the outdoors became more common as industrialisation took hold. Organised school trips and camping for school students emerged in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the UK, USA, Europe and Australia. The development of outdoor education was supported by, and contributed to related developments in progressive and experiential education and humanistic psychology.
Today, many millions of dollars are spent taking tens of thousands students around the world into their surrounding outdoor environment, away from the walls, rooves of the classrooms. There are a wide variety of styles and methodologies undertaken, including environmental education (e.g., school greening projects), extended stay residential programs, journey-style expedition programs, and challenge-based programs, such as using ropes courses.
The body of research literature about the use of outdoor education with school students has been gradually developing, particular since the 1960's.
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Clark, S. J. (2003). A school away from school: Residential schooling for Year 9 students and observations about teaching in general. Unpublished master's of education thesis, Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.
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Cooper, G. (2004). How school groups benefit from outdoor experiences. Horizons, 25(Spring), 10-18.
Cope, A. J. (2006). The effects of an outdoor education program upon the self concept of year nine students. Unpublished Masters thesis. Monash University, Australia.
Craigie, S. (1996). The effect of an Outward Bound experience on the self-concept of year nine and ten boys. Unpublished honours thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Crompton, J. L., & Sellar, C. (1981). Do outdoor experiences contribute to positive development in the affective domain? Journal of Environmental Education, 12(4), 21-29.
Davidson, L. (2001). Qualitative research and making meaning from adventure: A case study of boys experiences of outdoor education at school. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1(2), 11-21.
Dean, K. (1990). Personal and social development of young people through residential outdoor education: A case study. Unpublished Masters thesis, University of Liverpool, UK.
Dickinson, R. D. (1979). A study to determine self-concept change through a program of wilderness skill development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, NC.
Doherty, C. (2003). The effects of a public school system's one day adventure experience. Unpublished 4th year teacher education project, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
Dyson, B. P. (1996). Two physical education teachers' experience of Project Adventure. Journal of Experiential Education, 19(2), 90-97.
Dyson, B. & O'Sullivan, M. (1998). Innovation in two alternative elementary school programs: Why it works. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69(3), 242-253.
Eagle, H., Gordon, J., & Lewis, L. (c.1999) The effects of a public school system's one day adventure experience. *.
Elledge, G. E. (1973). East High School Senior Seminar 1973 evaluation. Denver, CO: Denver Public Schools.
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Falk, J., & Balling, J. (1980). The school field trip: Where you go makes the difference. Science and Children, 17(6), *.
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Fallis, J. (1991). Moving beyond apathy to environmental action. Journal of Experiential Education, 14(1), 27-30.
Fersch, M., & Smith, M. (1972). Project Adventure - Year I, final quantitative evaluation for 1971-72. Hamilton, MA: Hamilton-Wenham Regional High School.
Fornader, G. (1973). Report on Mitchell Senior Seminar. Unpublished Masters thesis, University of Colorado, CO.
Fraillon, J. (2005). A review of the outdoor and adventure education research Literature as it relates to the Somers School Camp. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.
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Goodman, C. (1995). Outdoor education and psychological resilience in adolescence. Unpublished graduate diploma thesis, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Gouvernet, P. J. (1988). Motivation and self-regulation. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Gray, T. L., & Patterson, J. W. (1995, November). Differential gender outcomes for adolescent participants following an extended sojourn to the Australian bush. Paper presented to the 23rd Annual International Association for Experiential Education Conference, Lake Geneva, WI.
Gray, T. L., & Patterson, J. W., & Linke, R. D. (1993). A progress report on the impact of extended stay outdoor education programs - The ‘Glengarry’ Experience. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual NSW Outdoor Education Conference, Illaroo by the Shoalhaven, NSW, Australia (pp. 57-63).
Gray, T. L., & Perusco, D. (1993). Footprints in the sand: The value of outdoor education in the school curriculum. The ACHPER National Journal, Autumn, 17-20.
Harris, I. (1999). Outdoor education in secondary schools: What future? Horizons, *(4), 5-8.
Hartnung, J. V. (1973). An evaluation of an experimental stress-challenge environmental challenge course. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, IL.
Hastie, P. A. (1992). Secondary school students’ enjoyment of outdoor adventure experiences. Journal of Experiential Education, 15(1), 43-47.
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Hayllar, B. (1990). Residential outdoor education. In McRae, K. (Ed.) (1990). Outdoor and environmental education: Diverse purposes and practices (pp. 125-144). Melbourne: Macmillan.
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Hess, R. (1975). An analysis of Project Apollo, an environmental education stress-challenge program for Upward Bound students. Unpublished master's thesis, Southern Illinois University, IL.
Heyliger, J. (2002). The effects of experiential education on the academic achievement of middle and high school students. Unpublished article, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.
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Hoeksma, H. (1964). An experiment dealing with the effects of outdoor education on the achievement of 6th graders in arithmetic. Unpublished masters' thesis, University of Northern Illinois, USA.
Hogan, R. (2002). Might outdoor education help develop intelligence? Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 6(2), *.
Hooper, W. (1984). Outdoor education in the secondary school. Proceedings of the 4th National Outdoor Education Conference, May, 1984, 31-35.
Humberstone, B. (1987). Organisational factors, teachers approach and pupil commitment in outdoor activities: A case study of schooling and gender in outdoor education. PhD, University of Southampton.
Huxley, W. V. (1995). Gender differences in the provision of outdoor education: Experiences of Sydney’s elite private schools. Unpublished master’s thesis, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Jones, C. (1978). An evaluation of the effects of an Outward Bound type of program upon the self-concepts and academic achievement of high school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University School of Education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 2887a-2888a.
Keighley, P. (1985a). Using residential and outdoor education as a medium for experiential learning in the TVEI and CPVE initiatives. Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 2(March/April), 16-19.
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Lee, R. & Schroder, H. (1969). Effects of Outward Bound training on urban youth. Journal of Special Education, 3(2), *.
Lovett, R. A. (1971). Outward Bound: A means of implementing guidance objectives. University of Toledo, *.
Mackay, B. J. (1981). The evaluation of outcomes of resident outdoor education. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Canterbury, Canterbury, New Zealand.
Marsh, H. W. & Richards, G. E. (1988). The Outward Bound Bridging Course for low achieving high school males: Effect on academic achievement and multidimensional self-concepts. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 281-298.
McDonald, T. (1997). Outward Bound and adolescence: Self-esteem and sex role characteristics. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Canberra, ACT, Australia.
McIntyre, N. (1987). Self-concept change as a result of an extended outdoor education residential experience. Proceedings of the Fifth National Outdoor Education Conference, 11-15 January, Woodman Point, Perth, WA, Australia (pp. 84-89).
McKenna, P. D. (1995). The effect of reflective journals on the self-concept of participants in an outdoor education program. Unpublished master’s thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Mckenzie, A. A., & White, R. (1982). Field work in geography and long-term memory structures. American Education Research Journal, 99, *.
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McRae, K. (1990a). Development, implementation and evaluation of a secondary school outdoor education programme: A case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Macquarie University, Melbourne, Australia.
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Naches, A. M., & Roberts, J. A. (1967). An evaluation of several effects of the Title III ESEA “Dare to Care” Program. Denver, CO: Adams County School District 14.
Neill, J. T. (1994). The effect of Outward Bound high school programs on adolescents' self-concept, mental health, and coping strategies. Unpublished honours thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
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Neill, J. T. (2001). Adolescent development and outdoor education in schools. Unpublished article.
Neill, J. T., & Heubeck, J. T. (1995a). Abseil anxiety and confidence: A pilot study. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 1(2), 28-30.
Neill, J. T., & Heubeck, B. (1995b). Insights into adolescents' mental health during Outward Bound programs. In Proceedings of the 9th National Outdoor Education Conference, Jan 15-20, Gold Coast, Australia.
Neill, J. T., & Heubeck, B. (1997). Adolescent coping styles and outdoor education: Searching for the mechanisms of change. In Proceedings: First International Adventure Therapy Conference: Exploring the Boundaries, 1-5 July, Perth, Western Australia (pp. 227-243). Camping and Outdoor Education Association of Western Australia.
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Nussbaumer, I. R. (1989). Physical self-concept and outdoor education. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
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