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Rites of Passage
Psychological aspects

Wilderness-based Rites of Passage
(Rites of Passage & Outdoor Education)

James Neill
Last updated:
14 Dec 2004

Wilderness-based Rites of Passage

Applying Rites of Passage Models to Outdoor Education


Beames, S. (2004). Overseas youth expeditions with Raleigh International: A rite of passage? Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 8(1), 29-36.

Bell, B. (2003). The rites of passage and outdoor education: Critical concerns for effective programming.  Journal of Experiential Education, 26(1), 41-50.

Brown, M. H. (1987). Wilderness Vision Quest: Exploring the Frontiers in Human Resource Development.  Paper presented at the 4th World Wilderness Congress, Estes Park, Colorado, September.

Gass, M., Garvey, D., & Sugarman, D. (2003).The long-term effects of a first-year wilderness orientation program. Journal of Experiential Education, 26(1), 34-40.

Earth Mentoring Institute (2001). Initiation in the wilderness: Rediscovering lost ceremonies of rites of passage. Primary Feathers Journal.  http://natureawareness.com/

Maddern, E. (1990). What is it fifteen year olds need?  Notes on developing initiations appropriate to our timesAdventure Education, 17(1), 29-32. [250kb; pdf]

Lertzman, D. A. (2002). Rediscovering rites of passage: Education, transformation, and the transition to sustainability. Conservation Ecology, 5(2), 30. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art30/