James Neill, 2009
Level of Measurement 
Properties 
Examples 
Descriptive statistics 
Graphs 
Nominal / Categorical 
Discrete Arbitrary 
Dichotomous
Types / Categories

Frequencies Percentage 
Bar Pie 
Ordinal / Rank 
Ordered categories Ranks 
Ranking of favourites Academic grades 
Frequencies Mode Median Percentiles 
Bar Pie Stem & leaf 
Interval 
Equal distances between values Discrete Metric Interval scales >5 can usually be treated as ratio 
Discrete  Thoughts, behaviours, feelings, etc. on a Likert scale Metric  Deg. C or F 
Frequencies Mode (if discrete) Median Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis 
Bar Pie Stem & Leaf Boxplot Histogram 
Ratio 
Continuous
/ Metric / Meaningful 0 allows ratio statements 
Age Weight VO_{2} max Deg. Kelvin 
Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis 
Histogram Boxplot Stem&Leaf 
Statistic 
Nominal 
Ordinal 
Interval 
Ratio 
Mode 



If meaningful 
Median 




Range, Min. Max 




Mean 


If metric 

SD 


If metric 

Graph 
Nominal 
Ordinal 
Interval 
Ratio 
Bar / Pie 


If discrete 

Stem & Leaf 




Boxplot 




Histogram 


If metric 
