What is Locus of Control?

Locus of Control Tutorial

Measures of Locus of Control

James Neill
Last updated:
06 Dec 2006

Measures of Locus of Control

Julian Rotter (1966) developed a 29-item Locus of Control questionnaire.  Since then, many others have tested, criticiqued and refined the concept and the measurement tool (e.g., Marsh & Richards, 1986).  Rotter's original instrument is still in wide use, but increasingly people are turning to more specific measures of Locus of Control (e.g., health locus of control) and / or to multidimensional measures (Marsh & Richards, 1987).


Marsh, H. W. & Richards, G. E. (1986). The Rotter Locus of Control Scale: The comparison of alternative response formats and implications for reliability, validity and dimensionality. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 509-558.

Marsh, H. W. & Richards, G. E. (1987). The multidimensionality of the Rotter I-E Scale and its higher order structure: An application of confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 22, 39-69.

Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcements, Psychological Monographs, 80, Whole No. 609.