Historical Outdoor Education References

James Neill
Last updated:
05 May 2007


Cohen, R. (2000). A personal history of the International Consortium for Experiential Learning.  Paper presented to the 7th International Consortium for Experiential Learning Conference, December 4 to 8, Aotearoa, New Zealand.

Gillis, L. (2002) (Ed.) Significant events in adventure programming that influenced the beginning of adventure therapy.

James. W. (1893).  The moral equivalent of war.

Kurt Hahn's Speeches

Outward Bound International - A historical perspective.


Neill, J. T. (2001). A profile of outdoor education programs and their implementation in Australia Japanese Outdoor Education Journal, 5(2), 1-9.

Neill, J. T., & Gray, T. (2001). The Australian Journal of Outdoor Education: A review of the first five yearsAustralian Journal of Outdoor Education, 6(1), 57-62.


Note: These two papers present an overview of the situation of adventure programming in The Netherlands and Belgium. It connects approaches to program facilitation with names and places in the local history of outdoor training and education. This material is only available in Dutch.

Hovelynck J. (1998). Ervaringsleren in outdoor-programma’s: een overzicht van en reflectie op de gangbare begeleidingsmodellen. Werken, leren en leven met groepen, C2520, 1-26

Hovelynck J. (2001). Procesbegeleiding in outdoor-programma’s: een reflectie bij 40 jaar Nederlandstalige outdoor-training. Handboek Effectief Opleiden, (26), 187-214.

United Kingdom

Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (2000).  From Lyme Bay to licensing. http://www.aala.org/lymebay01.html

Brereton, H. L. (1968). Gordonstoun: Ancient estate and modern school. Edinburgh: Chambers.

United States of America

Carlson, R. E. (1980). Innovations for the future: Where have we come from and where are we going? The Bradford Papers 1980.

Garvey, D. (1995). A History of AEE [Association for Experiential Education].  In: K. Warren, M. Sakofs, & J. Hunt (Eds.) The Theory of Experiential Education. Dubuque, IO.

Garvey, D. (1990). A history of the AEE [Association for Experiential Education]. In: J. C. Miles & S. Priest (Eds.) Adventure Education. Dubuque, IO.

Hammerman, W. M. (Ed.) (1980). Fifty years of resident outdoor education (1930-1980): Its impact on American education. Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association.

Knapp, C. E. (1994). Progressivism never died, it just moved outside: What can experiential educators learn from the past? Journal of Experiential Education, 17(2), 8-12.

Priest, S., & Gass, M. (1997). Effective leadership in adventure programming. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Neill, J. T. (2002). The the vision of Benton MacKaye (creator of the Appalachian Trail). 

Watters. R. (1985). Historical perspectives of outdoor and wilderness recreation programming in the United States. Proceedings of the 1984 Conference on Outdoor Recreation:  A Landmark Conference in the Outdoor Recreation Field, John C. Miles and Ron Watters (eds), Idaho State University Press, Pocatello, pp. 103-114.  http://www.isu.edu/outdoor/history.htm