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Outdoor education history
Outdoor education theory

The Historical Roots of the Challenge Education Methodology
Smith, Roland, Havens & Hoyt (1992)

James Neill
Last updated:
15 Jun 2004

The historical roots of the challenge education methodology

Smith et al (1992) identified nine major methodological education contributions to challenge education, depicted in the Figure below:

  • outdoor education

  • adventure education

  • camping education

  • somatic education

  • awareness education

  • education education

  • humanistic education

  • awareness education

  • humanistic education

  • play education

  • recreation education, and

  • experiential education. 

Smith et al. also suggested that the role of the following forms of education has been important to challenge education:

  • health education

  • group dynamics education

  • family education

  • spiritual education

  • indigenous education




Smith, T. E., Roland, C. C., Havens, M. D., & Hoyt, J. A. (1992). The theory and practice of challenge education. Dubuque, IO: Kendall-Hunt. (p. 1)