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What are the Stages of Group Development?

James Neill
Last updated:
15 Aug 2004

Stages of group development

Bruce Tuckman (1965) developed a 4-stage model of group development.  He labelled the stages, Dr Suess-style:

1. Forming: The group comes together and gets to initially know one other and form as a group.

2. Storming: A chaotic vying for leadership and trialling of group processes

3. Norming: Eventually agreement is reached on how the group operates (norming)

4. Performing: The group practices its craft and becomes effective in meeting its objectives.

Tuckman added a 5th stage 10 years later:

5. Adjourning: The process of "unforming" the group, that is, letting go of the group structure and moving on.

More information on Tuckman's 5 stages of group development model