The Life Effectiveness Questionnaire: Development and Psychometrics


James T. Neill
Herbert W. Marsh
Garry E. Richards



This chapter briefly reviews the problematic history of evaluating the outcomes of outdoor-based experiential education programs.  One of the key criticisms is the lack of theoretically and psychometrically sound instruments to assess changes in the self-perceptions of participants in such programs.  Consequently, this chapter explains the development of a practical, easy-to-use self-report instrument designed to measure changes in key areas of “life effectiveness”.  Congeneric and multifactorial confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire-version G to develop an eight factor model (Time Management, Social Competence, Achievement Motivation, Intellectual Flexibility, Task Leadership, Emotional Control, Active Initiative, and Self-Confidence).  Factorial invariance across gender and age groups was supported.  A replication study confirmed the structure of the instrument.  Potential applications of the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire for program evaluations are also discussed.

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